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A'ALI PASHA, an eminent reforming Turkish statesman (1815-1871).


AALBORG (19), a trading town on the Liimfiord, in the N. of Jutland.

AAR, a large Swiss river about 200 m. long, which falls into the
Rhine as it leaves Switzerland.

AARGAU, a fertile Swiss canton bordering on the Rhine.

AARHUUS (33), a port on the E. of Jutland, with a considerable
export and import trade, and a fine old Gothic cathedral.

AARON, the elder brother of Moses, and the first high-priest of the
Jews, an office he held for forty years.

ABACA, Manila hemp, or the plant, native to the Philippines, which
yield it in quantities.

ABACUS, a tablet crowning a column and its capital.

ABADDON, the bottomless pit, or the angel thereof.

ABARIM, a mountain chain in Palestine, NE. of the Dead Sea, the
highest point being Mount Nebo.

ABATEMENT, a mark of disgrace in a coat of arms.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a French Protestant theologian and a mathematician,
a friend of Newton, and much esteemed for his learning by Rousseau and
Voltaire (1679-1767).

ABBADIE, two brothers of French descent, Abyssinian travellers in
the years 1837-1848; also a French Protestant divine (1658-1727).

ABBAS, uncle of Mahomet, founder of the dynasty of the Abbasides

ABBAS PASHA, the khedive of Egypt, studied five years in Vienna,
ascended the throne at eighteen, accession hailed with enthusiasm; shows
at times an equivocal attitude to Britain; _b_. 1874.

ABBAS THE GREAT, shah of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sophis, great
alike in conquest and administration (1557-1628).

ABBAS-MIRZA, a Persian prince, a reformer of the Persian army, and a
leader of it, unsuccessfully, however, against Russia (1783-1833).

ABBASIDES, a dynasty of 37 caliphs who ruled as such at Bagdad from
750 to 1258.

AB`BATI, NICCOLO DELL', an Italian fresco-painter (1512-1571).

ABBE, name of a class of men who in France prior to the Revolution
prepared themselves by study of theology for preferment in the Church,
and who, failing, gave themselves up to letters or science.

ABBEVILLE (19), a thriving old town on the Somme, 12 m. up, with an
interesting house architecture, and a cathedral, unfinished, in the
Flamboyant style.

ABBOT, head of an abbey. There were two classes of abbots: Abbots
Regular, as being such in fact, and Abbots Commendatory, as guardians and
drawing the revenues.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of James I.
and Charles I., and one of the translators of King James's Bible; an
enemy of Laud's, who succeeded him (1562-1633).

ABBOT OF MISRULE, a person elected to superintend the Christmas

ABBOTSFORD, the residence of Sir Walter Scott, on the Tweed, near
Melrose, built by him on the site of a farm called Clarty Hole.

ABBOTT, EDWIN, a learned Broad Church theologian and man of letters;
wrote, besides other works, a volume of sermons "Through Nature to
Christ"; esteemed insistence on miracles injurious to faith; _b_. 1838.

ABDAL`LAH, the father of Mahomet, famed for his beauty (545-570);
also a caliph of Mecca (622-692).

ABDALRAH`MAN, the Moorish governor of Spain, defeated by Charles
Martel at Tours in 732.

ABDALS (lit. servants of Allah), a set of Moslem fanatics in

ABD-EL-KA`DIR, an Arab emir, who for fifteen years waged war against
the French in N. Africa, but at length surrendered prisoner to them in
1847. On his release in 1852 he became a faithful friend of France

ABDE`RA, a town in ancient Thrace, proverbial for the stupidity of
its inhabitants.

ABDICATIONS, of which the most celebrated are those of the Roman
Dictator Sylla, who in 70 B.C. retired to Puteoli; of Diocletian, who in
A.D. 305 retired to Salone; of Charles V., who in 1556 retired to the
monastery St. Yuste; of Christina of Sweden, who in 1654 retired to Rome,
after passing some time in France; of Napoleon, who in 1814 and 1815
retired first to Elba and then died at St. Helena; of Charles X. in 1830,
who died at Goritz, in Austria; and of Louis Philippe, who in 1848
retired to end his days in England.

ABDIEL, one of the seraphim, who withstood Satan in his revolt
against the Most High.

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Turkey from 1861, in succession to
Abdul-Medjid (1830-1876).

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Morocco, was only fourteen at his accession;
_b_. 1880.

ABDUL-HA`MID II., sultan of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz,
and his successor; under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment,
and the Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred;
_b_. 1842.

ABD-UL-MED`JID, sultan, father of the two preceding, in whose
defence against Russia England and France undertook the Crimean war

ABDUR-RAH`MAN, the ameer of Afghanistan, subsidised by the English;
_b_. 1830.

A'BECKET, GILBERT, an English humourist, who contributed to _Punch_
and other organs; wrote the "Comic Blackstone" and comic histories of
England and Rome (1811-1856).

A'BECKET, A. W., son of the preceding, a litterateur and journalist;
_b_. 1844.

ABEL, the second son of Adam and Eve; slain by his brother. The
death of Abel is the subject of a poem by Gessner and a tragedy by

ABEL, SIR F. A., a chemist who has made a special study of
explosives; _b_. 1827.

ABEL, HENRY, an able Norwegian mathematician, who died young

AB`ELARD, PETER, a theologian and scholastic philosopher of French
birth, renowned for his dialectic ability, his learning, his passion for
Heloise, and his misfortunes; made conceivability the test of
credibility, and was a great teacher in his day (1079-1142).

ABELLI, a Dominican monk, the confessor of Catharine de Medici

ABENCERRA`GES, a powerful Moorish tribe in Grenada, whose fate in
the 15th century has been the subject of interesting romance.

ABEN-EZ`RA, a learned Spanish Jew and commentator on the Hebrew
scriptures (1090-1168).

ABERA`VON (6), a town and seaport in Glamorganshire, with copper and
iron works.

ABERCROMBIE, SIR RALPH, a distinguished British general of Scottish
birth, who fell in Egypt after defeating the French at Aboukir Bay

ABERDEEN (124), the fourth city in Scotland, on the E. coast,
between the mouths of the Dee and Don; built of grey granite, with many
fine public edifices, a flourishing university, a large trade, and
thriving manufactures. Old Aberdeen, on the Don, now incorporated in the
municipality, is the seat of a cathedral church, and of King's College,
founded in 1404, united with the university in the new town.

ABERDEEN, EARL OF, a shrewd English statesman, Prime Minister of
England during the Crimean war (1784-1860).--Grandson of the preceding,
Gov.-Gen. of Canada; _b_. 1847.

ABERDEENSHIRE (281), a large county in NE. of Scotland; mountainous
in SW., lowland N. and E.; famed for its granite quarries, its fisheries,
and its breed of cattle.

ABERNETHY, a small burgh in S. Perthshire, with a Pictish round
tower, and once the capital of the Pictish kingdom.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT, an apparent motion in a star due to the earth's
motion and the progressive motion of light.

ABERYST`WITH (16), a town and seaport in Cardiganshire, Wales, with
a university.

AB`GAR XIV., a king of Edessa, one of a dynasty of the name, a
contemporary of Jesus Christ, and said to have corresponded with Him.

ABHORRERS, the Royalist and High Church party in England under
Charles II., so called from their abhorrence of the principles of their

ABIGAIL, the widow of Nabal, espoused by David.

ABICH, W. H., a German mineralogist and traveller (1806-1886).

ABINGDON (6), a borough in Berks, 6 m. S. of Oxford.

ABIOGENESIS, the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

ABIPONES, a once powerful warlike race in La Plata, now nearly all

ABLE MAN, man with "a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a
hand to execute" (Gibbon).

ABNER, a Hebrew general under Saul; assassinated by Joab.

ABO, the old capital of Finland and seat of the government, on the
Gulf of Bothnia.

AB`OMEY, the capital of Dahomey, in W. Africa.

ABOU`KIR, village near Alexandria, in Egypt, on the bay near which
Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1799; where Napoleon beat the Turks,
1799; and where Abercrombie fell, 1801.

ABOUT, EDMOND, spirited French litterateur and journalist

ABRAHAM, the Hebrew patriarch, ancestor of the Jews, the very type
of an Eastern pastoral chief at once by his dignified character and
simple faith.

ABRAHAM, THE PLAINS OF, a plain near Quebec.

ABRAHAM-MEN, a class of lunatics allowed out of restraint, at one
time, to roam about and beg; a set of impostors who wandered about the
country affecting lunacy.

ABRAN`TES, a town in Portugal, on the Tagus; taken by Marshal Junot,
1807, and giving the title of Duke to him.

ABRAXAS STONES, stones with cabalistic figures on them used as

ABRUZ`ZI, a highland district in the Apennines, with a pop. of

ABSALOM, a son of David, who rebelled against his father, and at
whose death David gave vent to a bitter wail of grief. A name given by
Dryden to the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II.

ABSOLUTE, THE, the philosophical name for the uncreated Creator, or
creating cause of all things, dependent on nothing external to itself.

ABSYRTUS, a brother of Medea, whom she cut in pieces as she fled
with Jason, pursued by her father, throwing his bones behind her to
detain her father in his pursuit of her by stopping to pick them up.

ABT, FRANZ, a German composer of song-music (1819-1885).

ABU, a mountain (6000 ft.) in Rajputana, with a footprint of Vishnu
on the top, and two marble temples half-way up, held sacred by the Jains.

AB`UBEKR, as the father of Ayesha, the father-in-law of Mahomet, the
first of the caliphs and the founder of the Sunnites; _d_. 634.

AB`U-KLEA, in the Soudan, where the Mahdi's forces were defeated by
Sir H. Stewart in 1885.

A`BUL-FARAJ, a learned Armenian Jew, who became bishop of Aleppo,
and wrote a history of the world from Adam onwards (1226-1286).

ABUL-FAZEL, the vizier of the great Mogul emperor Akbar, and who
wrote an account of his reign and of the Mogul empire; he was
assassinated in 1604.

ABUL-FEDA, a Moslem prince of Hamat in Syria, who in his youth took
part against the Crusaders, and wrote historical works in Arabic

ABU-THA`LEB, uncle of Mahomet, and his protector against the plots
of his enemies the Koreish.

ABY`DOS, a town on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, famous as the
home of Leander, who swam the Hellespont every night to visit Hero in
Sestos, and as the spot where Xerxes built his bridge of boats to cross
into Europe in 480 B.C.; also a place of note in Upper Egypt.

ABYSSIN`IA, a mountainous country SE. of Nubia, with an area of
200,000 sq. m., made up of independent states, and a mixed population of
some four millions, the Abyssinians proper being of the Semite stock. It
is practically under the protectorate of Italy.

ACACIA, a large group of trees with astringent and gum-yielding
properties, natives of tropical Africa and Australia.

ACADEMY, a public shady park or place of groves near Athens, where
Plato taught his philosophy and whence his school derived its name, of
which there are three branches, the _Old_, the _Middle_, and the _New_,
represented respectively by Plato himself, Arcesilaos, and Carneades. The
_French Academy_, of forty members, was founded by Richelieu in 1635,
and is charged with the interests of the French language and literature,
and in particular with the duty of compiling an authoritative dictionary
of the French language. Besides these, there are in France other four
with a like limited membership in the interest of other departments of
science and art, all now associated in the _Institute of France_, which
consists in all of 229 members. There are similar institutions in other
states of Europe, all of greater or less note.

ACADIA, the French name for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

ACANTHUS, a leaf-like ornament on the capitals of the columns of
certain orders of architecture.

ACAPUL`CO, a Mexican port in the Pacific, harbour commodious, but
climate unhealthy.

ACARNA`NIA, a province of Greece N. of Gulf of Corinth; its pop.
once addicted to piracy.

ACCA`DIANS, a dark, thick-lipped, short-statured Mongol race in
Central Asia, displaced by the Babylonians and Assyrians, who were

ACCA-LAURENTIA, the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who
saved the lives of Romulus and Remus.

ACCIAIOLI, a Florentine family of 15th century, illustrious in
scholarship and war.

ACCOLADE, a gentle blow with a sword on the shoulder in conferring

ACCOL`TI, a Tuscan family, of 15th century, famous for their

ACCOR`SO, the name of a Florentine family, of 12th and 13th
centuries, great in jurisprudence.

ACCRA (16), capital and chief port in British Gold Coast colony.

ACCRINGTON (39), a manufacturing town 22 m. N. of Manchester.

ACCUM, FRIEDRICH, a German chemist, the first promoter of
gas-lighting (1769-1838).

ACCUMULATOR, a hydraulic press for storing up water at a high
pressure; also a device for storing up electric energy.

ACERRA (14), an ancient city 9 m. NE. of Naples; is in an unhealthy

ACETIC ACID, the pure acid of vinegar; the salts are called

ACETONE, a highly inflammable liquid obtained generally by the dry
distillation of acetates.

ACET`YLENE, a malodorous gaseous substance from the incomplete
combustion of hydro-carbons.

ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of 12 towns in the Peloponnesus,
formed especially against the influence of the Macedonians.

ACHAE`ANS, the common name of the Greeks in the heroic or Homeric

ACHAI`A, the N. district of the Peloponnesus, eventually the whole
of it.

ACHARD, a Prussian chemist, one of the first to manufacture sugar
from beetroot (1753-1821).

ACHARD`, LOUIS AMEDEE, a prolific French novelist (1814-1876).

ACHA`TES, the attendant of AEneas in his wandering after the fall of
Troy, remarkable for, and a perennial type of, fidelity.

ACHELO`UeS, a river in Greece, which rises in Mt. Pindus, and falls
into the Ionian Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of
Oceanus, and the father of the Sirens.

ACHEN, an eminent German painter (1556-1621).

ACHENWALL, a German economist, the founder of statistic science

ACH`ERON, a river in the underworld; the name of several rivers in
Greece more or less suggestive of it.

ACH`ERY, a learned French Benedictine of St. Maur (1609-1685).

ACH`ILL, a rocky, boggy island, sparsely inhabited, off W. coast of
Ireland, co. Mayo, with a bold headland 2222 ft. high.

ACHILLE`ID, an unfinished poem of Statius.

ACHIL`LES, the son of Peleus and Thetis, king of the Myrmidons, the
most famous of the Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and whose wrath with
the consequences of it forms the subject of the Iliad of Homer. He was
invulnerable except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him
as she dipt his body in the Styx to render him invulnerable.

ACHILLES OF GERMANY, Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery,
tough old gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very
blazing, far-seen character," says Carlyle (1414-1486).

ACHILLES TENDON, the great tendon of the heel, where Achilles was

ACHMED PASHA, a French adventurer, served in French army, condemned
to death, fled, and served Austria; condemned to death a second time,
pardoned, served under the sultan, was banished to the shores of the
Black Sea (1675-1747).

ACH`MET I., sultan of Turkey from 1603 to 1617; A. II., from
1691 to 1695; A. III., from 1703 to 1730, who gave asylum to Charles
XII. of Sweden after his defeat by the Czar at Pultowa.

ACHIT`OPHEL, name given by Dryden to the Earl of Shaftesbury of his

ACHROMATISM, transmission of light, undecomposed and free from
colour, by means of a combination of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint
glass, or by a single glass carefully prepared.

ACIERAGE, coating a copper-plate with steel by voltaic electricity.

A`CI-REA`LE (38), a seaport town in Sicily, at the foot of Mount
Etna, in NE. of Catania, with mineral waters.

A`CIS, a Sicilian shepherd enamoured of Galatea, whom the Cyclops
Polyphemus, out of jealousy, overwhelmed under a rock, from under which
his blood has since flowed as a river.

ACK`ERMANN, R., an enterprising publisher of illustrated works in
the Strand, a native of Saxony (1764-1834).

ACLAND, SIR HENRY, regius professor of medicine in Oxford,
accompanied the Prince of Wales to America in 1860, the author of several
works on medicine and educational subjects, one of Ruskin's old and tried
friends (1815).

ACLINIC LINE, the magnetic equator, along which the needle always
remains horizontal.

ACNE, a skin disease showing hard reddish pimples; ACNE
ROSACEA, a congestion of the skin of the nose and parts adjoining.

ACOEMETAE, an order of monks in the 5th century who by turns kept up
a divine service day and night.

ACONCA`GUA, the highest peak of the Andes, about 100 m. NE. of
Valparaiso, 22,867 ft. high; recently ascended by a Swiss and a
Scotchman, attendants of Fitzgerald's party.

ACONITE, monk's-hood, a poisonous plant of the ranunculus order with
a tapering root.

ACONITINE, a most virulent poison from aconite, and owing to the
very small quantity sufficient to cause death, is very difficult of
detection when employed in taking away life.

ACORN-SHELLS, a crustacean attached to rocks on the sea-shore,
described by Huxley as "fixed by its head," and "kicking its food into
its mouth with its legs."

ACOUSTICS, the science of sound as it affects the ear, specially of
the laws to be observed in the construction of halls so that people may
distinctly hear in them.

ACRASIA, an impersonation in Spenser's "Faerie Queen," of
intemperance in the guise of a beautiful sorceress.

ACRE, ST. JEAN D' (7), a strong place and seaport in Syria, at the
foot of Mount Carmel, taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip
Augustus and Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, held out against Bonaparte in
1799; its ancient name Ptolemais.

ACRES, BOB, a coward in the "Rivals" whose "courage always oozed out
at his finger ends."

ACROAMATICS, esoteric lectures, i. e. lectures to the initiated.

ACROLEIN, a light volatile limpid liquid obtained by the destructive
distillation of fats.

ACROLITHS, statues of which only the extremities are of stone.

ACROP`OLIS, a fortified citadel commanding a city, and generally the
nucleus of it, specially the rocky eminence dominating Athens.

ACROTE`RIA, pedestals placed at the middle and the extremities of a
pediment to support a statue or other ornament, or the statue or ornament

ACTA DIURNA, a kind of gazette recording in a summary way daily
events, established at Rome in 131 B.C., and rendered official by Caesar
in 50 B.C.

ACTA SANCTORUM, the lives of the saints in 62 vols. folio, begun in
the 17th century by the Jesuits, and carried on by the Bollandists.

ACTAEON, a hunter changed into a stag for surprising Diana when
bathing, and afterwards devoured by his own dogs.

ACTINIC RAYS, "non-luminous rays of higher frequency than the
luminous rays."

ACTINISM, the chemical action of sunlight.

ACTINOMYCOSIS, a disease of a fungous nature on the mouth and lower
jaw of cows.

ACTIUM, a town and promontory at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf
(Arta), in Greece, where Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony
and Cleopatra, Sept. 2, 31 B.C.

ACTON, an adventurer of English birth, who became prime minister of
Naples, but was driven from the helm of affairs on account of his
inveterate antipathy to the French (1737-1808).

ACTON, LORD, a descendant of the former, who became a leader of the
Liberal Catholics in England, M.P. for Carlow, and made a peer in 1869;
a man of wide learning, and the projector of a universal history by
experts in different departments of the field; _b_. 1834.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, a narrative account in the New Testament of
the founding of the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of
Peter and Paul, written by Luke, commencing with the year 33, and
concluding with the imprisonment of Paul in Rome in 62.

ACUN`HA, TRISTRAM D', a Portuguese navigator, companion of
Albuquerque; NUNA D', his son, viceroy of the Indies from 1528 to
1539; RODRIQUE D', archbishop of Lisbon, who in 1640 freed Portugal
from the Spanish domination, and established the house of Braganza on the

ACUPRESSURE, checking hemorrhage in arteries during an operation by
compressing their orifices with a needle.

ACUPUNCTURE, the operation of pricking an affected part with a
needle, and leaving it for a short time in it, sometimes for as long as
an hour.

ADAIR, SIR ROBERT, a distinguished English diplomatist, and
frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions

ADAL, a flat barren region between Abyssinia and the Red Sea.

ADALBE`RON, the archbishop of Rheims, chancellor of Lothaire and
Louis V.; consecrated Hugh Capet; _d_. 998.

ADALBERT, a German ecclesiastic, who did much to extend Christianity
over the North (1000-1072).

ADALBERT, ST., bishop of Prague, who, driven from Bohemia, essayed
to preach the gospel in heathen Prussia, where the priests fell upon him,
and "struck him with a death-stroke on the head," April 27, 997, on the
anniversary of which day a festival is held in his honour.

ADA`LIA (30), a seaport on the coast of Asia Minor, on a bay of the
same name.

ADAM (i. e. man), the first father, according to the Bible, of the
human race.

ADAM, ALEX., a distinguished Latin scholar, rector for 40 years of
the Edinburgh High School, Scott having been one of his pupils

ADAM, LAMBERT, a distinguished French sculptor (1700-1759).

ADAM, ROBERT, a distinguished architect, born at Kirkcaldy,
architect of the Register House and the University, Edinburgh

ADAM BEDE, George Eliot's first novel, published anonymously in
1859, took at once with both critic and public.

ADAM KADMON, primeval man as he at first emanated from the Creator,
or man in his primeval rudimentary potentiality.

ADAM OF BROMEN, distinguished as a Christian missionary in the 11th
century; author of a celebrated Church history of N. Europe from 788 to
1072, entitled _Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum_.

ADAMAS`TOR, the giant spirit of storms, which Camoens, in his
"Luciad," represents as rising up before Vasco de Gama to warn him off
from the Cape of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the
resultant success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope.

ADAMAWA, a region in the Lower Soudan with a healthy climate and a
fertile soil, rich in all tropical products.

ADAMITES, visionaries in Africa in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia
in the 14th and 15th, who affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went

ADAMNAN, ST., abbot of Iona, of Irish birth, who wrote a life of St.
Columba and a work on the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written

ADAMS, DR. F., a zealous student and translator of Greek medical
works (1797-1861).

ADAMS, JOHN, the second president of the United States, and a chief
promoter of their independence (1739-1826).

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, his eldest son, the sixth president (1767-1848).

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH, an English astronomer, the discoverer
simultaneously with Leverrier of the planet Neptune (1819-1892).

ADAMS, PARSON, a country curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with
a head full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but in
absolute ignorance of the world, which in his simplicity he takes for
what it professes to be.

ADAMS, SAMUEL, a zealous promoter of American independence, who
lived and died poor (1722-1803).

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a chain of coral reefs and sandbanks connecting
Ceylon with India.

ADAM'S PEAK, a conical peak in the centre of Ceylon 7420 ft. high,
with a foot-like depression 5 ft. long and 21/2 broad atop, ascribed to
Adam by the Mohammedans, and to Buddha by the Buddhists; it was here, the
Arabs say, that Adam alighted on his expulsion from Eden and stood doing
penance on one foot till God forgave him.

ADA`NA (40), a town SE. corner of Asia Minor, 30 m. from the sea.

ADANSON, MICHEL, a French botanist, born in AIX, the first to
attempt a natural classification of plants (1727-1806).

AD`DA, an affluent of the Po, near Cremona; it flows through Lake
Como; on its banks Bonaparte gained several of his famous victories over

ADDINGTON, HENRY, Lord Sidmouth, an English statesman was for a
short time Prime Minister, throughout a supporter of Pitt (1757-1844).

ADDISON, JOSEPH, a celebrated English essayist, studied at Oxford,
became Fellow of Magdalen, was a Whig in politics, held a succession of
Government appointments, resigned the last for a large pension; was
pre-eminent among English writers for the purity and elegance of his
style, had an abiding, refining, and elevating influence on the
literature of the country; his name is associated with the _Tatler,
Spectator_, and _Guardian_, as well as with a number of beautiful hymns

A`DELAAR, the name of honour given to Cort Sivertsen, a famous Norse
seaman, who rendered distinguished naval services to Denmark and to
Venice against the Turks (1622-1675).

ADELAIDE (133), the capital of S. Australia, on the river Torrens,
which flows through it into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. SE. of Port Adelaide;
a handsome city, with a cathedral, fine public buildings, a university,
and an extensive botanical garden; it is the great emporium for S.
Australia; exports wool, wine, wheat, and copper ore.

ADELAIDE, eldest daughter of Louis XV. of France (1732-1806).

ADELAIDE, PORT, the haven of Adelaide, a port of call, with a
commodious harbour.

ADELAIDE, QUEEN, consort of William IV. of England (1792-1849).

ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS, sister of Louis Philippe, his Egeria

ADELBERG, a town of Carniola, 22 m. from Trieste, with a large
stalactite cavern, besides numerous caves near it.

ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a distinguished German philologist and
lexicographer, born in Pomerania (1732-1806).

A`DEN (42), a fortified town on a peninsula in British territory S.
of Arabia, 105 m. E. of Bab-el-Mandeb; a coaling and military station, in
a climate hot, but healthy.

AD`HERBAL, son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, killed by Jugurtha, 249

ADI GRANTH, the sacred book of the Sikhs.

ADIAPH`ORISTS, Lutherans who in 16th century maintained that certain
practices of the Romish Church, obnoxious to others of them, were matters
of indifference, such as having pictures, lighting candles, wearing
surplices, and singing certain hymns in worship.

AD`IGE, a river of Italy, which rises in the Rhetian Alps and falls
into the Adriatic after a course of 250 m.; subject to sudden swellings
and overflowings.

ADIPOCERE, a fatty, spermaceti-like substance, produced by the
decomposition of animal matter in moist places.

ADIPOSE TISSUE, a tissue of small vesicles filled with oily matter,
in which there is no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin
and gives smoothness and warmth to the body.

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in
the State of New York; source of the Hudson.

ADJUTANT, a gigantic Indian stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft.
in height, which feeds on carrion and offal, and is useful in this way,
as storks are.

ADLER, HERMANN, son and successor of the following, born in Hanover;
a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as
their sacred Scriptures; was elected Chief Rabbi in 1891; _b_. 1839.

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS, chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover

ADLERCREUTZ, a Swedish general, the chief promoter of the revolution
of 1808, who told Gustavus IV. to his face that he ought to retire

ADME`TUS, king of Pherae in Thessaly, one of the Argonauts, under
whom Apollo served for a time as neat-herd. _See_ ALCESTIS.

ADMIRABLE DOCTOR, a name given to Roger Bacon.

ADMIRAL, the chief commander of a fleet, of which there are in
Britain three grades--admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the
first displaying his flag on the main mast, the second on the fore, and
the third on the mizzen.

ADMIRALTY, BOARD OF, board of commissioners appointed for the
management of naval affairs.

ADMIRALTY ISLAND, an island off the coast of Alaska.

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group NE. of New Guinea, in the Pacific, which
belong to Germany.

ADOLF, FRIEDRICH, king of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles
divided themselves into the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party,
and the Hats, or the war-party (1710-1771).

ADOLPH, ST., a Spanish martyr: festival, Sept. 27.

ADOLPH OF NASSAU, Kaiser from 1291 to 1298, "a stalwart but
necessitous Herr" Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of
Edward Longshanks.

ADOLPHUS, JOHN, an able London barrister in criminal cases, and a
voluminous historical writer (1766-1845).

ADONA`I, the name used by the Jews for God instead of Jehovah, too
sacred to be pronounced.

ADONA`IS, Shelley's name for Keats.

ADO`NIS, a beautiful youth beloved by Aphrodite (Venus), but
mortally wounded by a boar and changed by her into a flower the colour of
his blood, by sprinkling nectar on his body.

ADOPTIONISTS, heretics who in the 8th century maintained that Christ
was the son of God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with
Him in character and will.

ADOR`NO, an illustrious plebeian family in Genoa, of the Ghibelline
party, several of whom were Doges of the republic.

ADOUR, a river of France, rising in the Pyrenees and falling into
the Bay of Biscay.

ADOWA`, a highland town in Abyssinia, and chief entrepot of trade.

ADRAS`TUS, a king of Argos, the one survivor of the first expedition
of the Seven against Thebes, who died of grief when his son fell in the

ADRETS, BARON DES, a Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty;
died a Catholic (1513-1587).

A`DRIA, an ancient town between the Po and the Adige; a flourishing
seaport at one time, but now 14 m. from the sea.

A`DRIAN, name of six popes: A. I., from 772 to 795, did much to
embellish Rome; A. II., from 867 to 872, zealous to subject the
sovereigns of Europe to the Popehood; A. III., from 884 to 885;
A. V., from 1054 to 1059, the only Englishman who attained to the
Papal dignity; A. V., in 1276; A. VI., from 1222 to 1223.

ADRIAN, ST., the chief military saint of N. Europe for many ages,
second only to St. George; regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and
protector against the plague.

ADRIANO`PLE (60), a city in European Turkey, the third in
importance, on the high-road between Belgrade and Constantinople.

ADRIA`TIC, THE, a sea 450 m. long separating Italy from Illyria,
Dalmatia, and Albania.

ADULLAM, David's hiding-place (1 Sam. xxii. 1), a royal Canaanitish
city 10 m. NW. of Hebron.

ADULLAMITES, an English political party who in 1866 deserted the
Liberal side in protest against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced.
John Bright gave them this name. See 1 Sam. xxii.

ADUMBLA, a cow, in old Norse mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost,
"licking the rime from the rocks--a Hindu cow transported north,"
surmises Carlyle.

ADVOCATE, LORD, chief counsel for the Crown in Scotland, public
prosecutor of crimes, and a member of the administration in power.

ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF, body of lawyers qualified to plead at the
Scottish bar.

ADVOCATES' LIBRARY, a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates
in Edinburgh, founded in 1632; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds
the privilege of receiving a copy of every book entered at Stationers'

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI, the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman
Catholic Church appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization.

AEACUS, a Greek king renowned as an administrator of distributive
justice, after death appointed one of the three judges in Hades. _See_

AEDILES, magistrates of ancient Rome who had charge of the public
buildings and public structures generally.

AEE`TIS, king of Colchis and father of Medea.

AEGE`AN SEA, the Archipelago.

AEGEUS, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into the AEgean Sea,
so called after him, in the mistaken belief that his son, who had been to
slay the Minotaur, had been slain by him.

AEGI`NA, an island 20 m. SW. of Athens, in a gulf of the same name.

AEGIR, the god of the sea in the Norse mythology.

AEGIS (lit. a goat's skin), the shield of Zeus, made of the hide of the
goat AMALTHEA (q. v.), representing originally the storm-cloud in which
the god invested himself when he was angry; it was also the attribute of
Athena, bearing in her case the Gorgon's head.


AEL`FRIC, a Saxon writer of the end of the 10th century known as the

AELIA`NUS, CLAUDIUS, an Italian rhetorician who wrote in Greek, and
whose extant works are valuable for the passages from prior authors which
they have preserved for us.

AEMI`LIUS PAULUS, the Roman Consul who fell at Cannae, 216 B.C.; also
his son, surnamed Macedonicus, so called as having defeated Perseus at
Pydna, in Macedonia.

AENE`AS, a Trojan, the hero of Virgil's "AEneid," who in his various
wanderings after the fall of Troy settled in Italy, and became, tradition
alleges, the forefather of the Julian Gens in Rome.


AE`NEID, an epic poem by Virgil, of which AEneas is the hero.

AENESIDEMUS, a sceptical philosopher, born in Crete, who flourished
shortly after Cicero, and summed up under ten arguments the contention
against dogmatism in philosophy. See "SCHWEGLER," translated by
Dr. Hutchison Stirling.

AEOLIAN ACTION, action of the wind as causing geologic changes.


AEO`LIANS, one of the Greek races who, originating in Thessaly,
spread north and south, and emigrated into Asia Minor, giving rise to the
AEolic dialect of the Greek language.

AEOLOTROPY, a change in the physical properties of bodies due to a
change of position.

AE`OLUS, the Greek god of the winds.

AEON, among the Gnostics, one of a succession of powers conceived as
emanating from God and presiding over successive creations and
transformations of being.

AEPYOR`NIS, a gigantic fossil bird of Madagascar, of which the egg is
six times larger than that of an ostrich.

AE`QUI, a tribe on NE. of Latium, troublesome to the Romans until
subdued in 302 B.C.

AERATED BREAD, bread of flour dough charged with carbonic acid gas.

AERATED WATERS, waters aerated with carbonic acid gas.

AES`CHINES, a celebrated Athenian orator, rival of Demosthenes, who
in the end prevailed over him by persuading the citizens to believe he
was betraying them to Philip of Macedon, so that he left Athens and
settled in Rhodes, where he founded a school as a rhetorician
(389-314 B.C.).

AES`CHYLUS, the father of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished
himself as a soldier both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a
poet; wrote, it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are
extant--the "Suppliants," the "Persae," the "Seven against Thebes," the
"Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon," the "Choephori," and the
"Eumenides," his plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in
Sicily (525-456 B.C.).

AESCULA`PIUS, a son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, whom, for
restoring Hippolytus to life, Zeus, at the prayer of Pluto, destroyed
with a thunderbolt, but afterwards admitted among the gods as god of
medicine and the healing art; the cock, the emblem of vigilance, and the
serpent, of prudence, were sacred to him.

AESON, the father of Jason, was restored to youth by Medea.

AE`SOP, a celebrated Greek fabulist of the 6th century B.C., of
whose history little is known except that he was originally a slave,
manumitted by Iadmon of Samos, and put to death by the Delphians,
probably for some witticism at their expense.

AESO`PUS, a celebrated Roman actor, a friend of Pompey and Cicero.

AESTHETICS, the science of the beautiful in nature and the fine arts.

AE`TIUS, a Roman general, who withstood the aggressions of the
Barbarians for twenty years, and defeated Attila at Chalons, 451;
assassinated out of jealousy by the Emperor Valentinian III., 454.

AETO`LIA, a country of ancient Greece N. of the Gulf of Corinth.

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