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BUBASTIS, an Egyptian goddess, the Egyptian Diana, the wife of Ptah; and a city in Lower Egypt, on the eastern branch of the Nile.

BUCCANEERS, an association, chiefly English and French, of piratical adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries, with their head-quarters in the Caribbean Sea, organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S. American continent, which they were carrying home across the sea.

BUCCLEUCH, a glen 18 m. SW. of Selkirk, with a stronghold of the Scott family, giving the head the title of earl or duke.

BUCEN`TAUR, the state galley, worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers, in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it.

BUCEPH`ALUS (i. e. ox-head), the horse which Alexander the Great, while yet a youth, broke in when no one else could, and on which he rode through all his campaigns; it died in India from a wound. The town, Bucephala, on the Hydaspes, was built near its grave.

BUCER MARTIN, a German Reformer, born at Strassburg; originally a Dominican, adopted the Reformed faith, ministered as pastor and professor in his native place, differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli, while he tried to reconcile them; invited by Cranmer to England, he accepted the invitation, and became professor of Divinity at Cambridge, where he died, but his bones were exhumed and burned a few years later (1491-1551).

BUCH, LEOPOLD VON, a German geologist, a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt, who esteemed him highly; adopted the volcanic theory of the earth; wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853).

BUCHAN, a district in the NE. of Aberdeenshire, between the rivers Deveron and Ythan; abounds in magnificent rock scenery. The Comyns were earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309.

BUCHANAN, CLAUDIUS, born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, chaplain in Barrackpur under the East India Company, vice-provost of the College at Fort William, Calcutta; one of the first to awaken an interest in India as a missionary field; wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815).

BUCHANAN, GEORGE, a most distinguished scholar and humanist, born at Killearn, Stirlingshire; educated at St. Andrews and Paris; professor for three years in the College at St. Barbe; returned to Scotland, became tutor to James V.'s illegitimate sons; imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for satires against the monks, escaped to France; driven from one place to another, imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the Inquisition, where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the Psalms; came back to Scotland, was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary, in 1566 principal of St. Leonard's College, in St. Andrews, in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI., and had several offices of State conferred on him; wrote a "History of Scotland," and his book "De Jure Regni," against the tyranny of peoples by kings; died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him; was buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard; when dying, it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury him, and when he found there was not, he ordered her to distribute what there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as they saw good (1506-1582).

BUCHANAN, JAMES, statesman of the United States, was ambassador in London in 1853, made President in 1856, the fifteenth in order, at the time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head, favoured the South, retired after his Presidentship into private life (1791-1868).

BUCHANAN, ROBERT, a writer in prose and verse, born in Warwickshire, educated at Glasgow University; his first work, "Undertones," a volume of verse published by him in 1863, and he has since written a goodly number of poems, some of them of very high merit, the last "The Wandering Jew," which attacks the Christian religion; besides novels, has written magazine articles, and one in particular, which involved him in some trouble; _b_.1841.

BUCHANITES, a fanatical sect who appeared in the W. of Scotland in 1783, named after a Mrs. Buchan, who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. xii.

BUCHAREST (220), capital of Roumania, picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza, a tributary of the Danube, in a fertile plain, 180 m. from the Black Sea; is a meanly built but well-fortified town, with the reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe; there is a Catholic cathedral and a university; it is the emporium of trade between the Balkan and Austria; textiles, grain, hides, metal, and coal are the chief articles in its markets.

BUCHEZ, JOSEPH, a French historian, politician, and Socialist; joined the St. Simonian Society, became a Christian Socialist, and a collaborateur in an important historical work, the "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution"; figured in political life after the Revolution of 1848, but retired to private life after the establishment of the Empire (1796-1865).

BUeCHNER, LUDWIG, physician and materialist, born at Darmstadt; lectured at Tuebingen University; wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff," i. e. Force and Matter, and had to retire into private practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy, which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899).

BUCHON, a learned Frenchman; wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846).

BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF, favourite of James I. and Charles I., born in Leicestershire; rose under favour of the former to the highest offices and dignities of the State; provoked by his conduct wars with Spain and France; fell into disfavour with the people; was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton, on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628).

BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF, son of the preceding; served under Charles I. in the Civil War, was at the battle of Worcester; became minister of Charles II.; a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man (1627-1688).

BUCKINGHAM, JAMES SILK, traveller and journalist, born in Falmouth; conducted a journal in Calcutta, and gave offence to the East India Company by his outspokenness; had to return to England, where his cause was warmly taken up; by his writings and speeches paved the way for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855).

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185), English S. midland county, lying E. of Oxford, W. of Bedford and Hertford, is full of beautiful and varied scenery; hill, dale, wood, and water. The Thames forms the southern boundary, the Ouse flows through the N., and the Thame through the centre. The Chiltern Hills cross the county. Agriculture is the prevailing industry; dairy produce, cattle and poultry feeding, and sheep rearing the sources of wealth. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3), on the Ouse, 60 m. NW. of London.

BUCKLAND, FRANCIS (FRANK), naturalist, son of the succeeding, bred to medicine; devoted to the study of animal life; was inspector of salmon fisheries; wrote "Curiosities of Natural History," "Familiar History of British Fishes," &c.; contributed largely to the journals, such as the _Field_, and edited _Land and Water_, which he started in 1866 (1826-1880).

BUCKLAND, WILLIAM, a distinguished geologist, born at Tiverton; had a predilection from boyhood for natural science; awoke in Oxford University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology; his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects; exerted himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in Genesis; was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel; his intellect gave way in 1850, and he remained in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856).

BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE, editor of the _Times_, born near Bath; studied at Oxford, where he distinguished himself; is a Fellow of All Souls' College; became editor in 1884, having previously belonged to the editorial staff; _b_. 1854.

BUCKLE, HENRY THOMAS, an advanced thinker, born in Lee, in Kent; in delicate health from his infancy, too ambitious for his powers, thought himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England," in connection with that of Europe, tried it, but failed; visited the East for his health, and died at Damascus; his theory as regards the development of civilisation is, that national character depends on material environment, and that progress depends upon the emancipation of rationality, an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements at work, and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones; he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862).

BUCKSTONE, JOHN BALDWIN, an able comic actor and popular dramatist, born in London; for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London (1802-1870).

BUDA-PESTH (506), a twin city, the capital of Hungary, on the Danube; Buda (Ger. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left, the two cities being connected by a suspension bridge, the former on a rocky elevation and the latter on level ground; a great commercial centre.

BUDASTIS, an ancient town in Lower Egypt, where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be held every year.

BUDDHA, GAUTAMA, or SAKYA-MUNI, the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B.C., born a Hindu, of an intensely contemplative nature, the son of a king, who did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life, from which, however, in his contemplation of the vanity of existence, nothing could detain him; retired into solitude at the age of 30, as Sakyamuni, i. e. solitary of the Sakyas, his tribe; consulted religious books, could get no good out of them, till, by-and-by, he abstracted himself more and more from everything external, when at the end of ten years, as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone with the universe, soul with soul, the light of truth rose full-orbed upon him, and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as Buddha, i. e. the Enlightened; now he said to himself, "I know it all," as Mahomet in his way did after him, and became a preacher to others of what had proved salvation to himself, which he continued to do for 40 years, leaving behind him disciples, who went forth without sword, like Christ's, to preach what they, like Christ's, believed was a gospel to every creature.

BUDDHISM, the religion of Buddha, a religion which, eschewing all speculation about God and the universe, set itself solely to the work of salvation, the end of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being, and the "way" to which was the mortification of all private passion and desire which mortification, when finished, was the Buddhist Nirvana. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith, which erelong became a formality, as all faiths of the kind, or of this high order, ever tend to do. Buddha is not answerable for this, but his followers, who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulae, which Buddha, knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the spirit giveth life, never attempted to do. Buddha wrote none himself, but in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form, under the name of Tripitaka, or triple basket, as it is called. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising religion; it at one time overran the whole of India, and though it is now in small favour there, it is, in such form as it has assumed, often a highly beggarly one, understood to be the religion of 340 millions of the human race.

BUDE-LIGHT, a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand burner, so called from the place of the inventor's abode.

BUDWEIS (28), a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau, 133 m. NW. of Vienna.

BUENOS AYRES (543), capital of the Argentine Republic, stands on the right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate, 150 m. from the Atlantic; it is a progressing city, improving in appearance, with a cathedral, several Protestant churches, a university and military school, libraries and hospitals; printing, cigar-making, cloth and boot manufacture are the leading industries; it is the principal Argentine port, and the centre of export and import trade; the climate does not correspond with the name it bears; a great deal of the foreign trade is conducted through Monte Video, but it monopolises all the inland trade.

BUFFALO (256), a city of New York State, at the E. end of Lake Erie, 300 m. due NW. of New York; is a well-built, handsome, and healthy city; the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain, cattle, and coal; while immense iron-works, tanneries, breweries, and flour-mills represent the industries; electric power for lighting, traction, &c., is supplied from Niagara.

BUFFON, GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE, a great French naturalist, born at Montbard, in Burgundy; his father one of the _noblesse de robe_; studied law at Dijon; spent some time in England, studying the English language; devoted from early years to science, though more to the display of it, and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi; assisted, and more than assisted, by Daubenton and others, produced 15 vols. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between the years 1749 and 1767. The saying "Style is the man" is ascribed to him, and he has been measured by some according to his own standard. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780).

BUGEAUD, THOMAS, marshal of France, born at Limoges; served under Napoleon; retired from service till 1830; served under Louis Philippe; contributed to the conquest of Algiers; was made governor, and created duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the battle of Isly in 1844; his motto was _Ense et aratro_, "By sword and plough" (1784-1849).

BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN, a German Reformer, a convert of Luther's and coadjutor; helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558).

BUGGE, Norwegian philologist, professor at Christiania; _b_. 1833.

BUHL, ornamental work for furniture, which takes its name from the inventor (see INFRA), consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel, or with metals of another colour; much in fashion in Louis XIV.'s reign.

BUHL, CHARLES ANDRE, an Italian cabinet-maker, inventor of the work which bears his name (1642-1732).

BUKOWINA (640), a small prov. and duchy in the E. of Austria-Hungary; rich in minerals, breeds cattle and horses.

BULGARIA, with Eastern Roumelia (3,154), constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland, with hills and fertile plains in the N., mountains and forests in the S.; Turkey is the southern boundary, Servia the western, the Danube the northern, while the Black Sea washes the eastern shores. The climate is mild, the people industrious; the chief export is cereals; manufactures of woollens, attar of roses, wine and tobacco, are staple industries; the chief import is live stock. SOFIA (50), the capital, is the seat of a university. VARNA (28), on the Black Sea, is the principal port. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in 1878, and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885.

BULL, an edict of the Pope, so called from a leaden seal attached to it.

BULL, GEORGE, bishop of St. Davids, born at Wells; a stanch Churchman; wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul and James on the matter of justification, and "Defensio Fidei Nicenae," in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN CREED (q. v.), and denied or modified by Arians, Socinians, and Sabellians (1634-1709).

BULL, JOHN, a humorous impersonation of the collective English people, conceived of as well-fed, good-natured, honest-hearted, justice-loving, and plain-spoken; the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire, "The History of John Bull," in which the Church of England figures as his mother.

BULL, OLE BORNEMANN, a celebrated violinist, born in Bergen, Norway, pupil of Paganini; was a wise man at making money, but a fool in spending it (1810-1880).

BULL RUN, a stream in Virginia, U.S., 25 m. from Washington, where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate, July 1861 and August 1862.

BULLANT, a French architect and sculptor; built the tombs of Montmorency, Henry II., and Catherine de Medicis, as well as wrought at the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578).

BULLER, CHARLES, a politician, born in Calcutta, pupil of Thomas Carlyle; entered Parliament at 24, a Liberal in politics; held distinguished State appointments; died in his prime, universally beloved and respected (1806-1848).

BULLER, GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY, served in China, Ashanti, South Africa, Egypt, and the Soudan, with marked distinction in the 60th King's Royal Rifles; has held staff appointments, and was for a short time Under-Secretary for Ireland; _b_. 1839.

BULLINGER, HEINRICH, a Swiss Reformer, born in Aargau; friend and successor of Zwingli; assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession; was a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575).

BULLS AND BEARS, in the Stock Exchange, the bull being one who buys in the hope that the value may rise, and the bear one who sells in the hope that it may fall. See BEAR.

BUeLOW, BERNARD VON, Foreign Secretary of the German empire; early entered the Foreign Office, and has done important diplomatic work in connection with it, having been secretary to several embassies and charge d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war; _b_. 1850.

BUeLOW, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, BARON VON, a Prussian general; served his country in the war with Revolutionary France; defeated the French under the Empire in several engagements, and contributed to the victory at Waterloo, heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816).

BUeLOW, GUIDO VON, a famous pianist, pupil of Liszt (1830-1894).

BULOZ, a French litterateur, born near Geneva; originator of the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ (1803-1877).

BULWER, HENRY LYTTON, an experienced and successful diplomatist, served the Liberal interest; was party to the conclusion of several important treaties; wrote several works, "An Autumn in Greece," a "Life of Byron," &c. (1801-1872).

BUMBLE, MR., a beadle in "Oliver Twist."

BUNAU, a German historian, author of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762).

BUNCOMBE, a district in N. Carolina, for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the U.S. Congress, whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe," i. e. to please one's constituency.

BUNDELKHAND (2,000), a territory in NW. Provinces, India, between the Chambal and the Jumna; has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense.

BUNKER HILL, an eminence 112 ft., now included in Boston, the scene on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of Independence.

BUNSBY, JACK, commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son," regarded as an oracle by Captain Cuttle.

BUNSEN, BARON VON, a diplomatist and man of letters, born at Korbach; in Waldeck; studied at Marburg and Goettingen; became acquainted with Niebuhr at Berlin; studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de Sacy at Paris; became secretary, under Niebuhr, to the Prussian embassy at Rome; recommended himself to the king, and succeeded Niebuhr; became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England; was partial to English institutions, and much esteemed in England; wrote the "Church of the Future," "Hippolytus and his Age," &c. (1791-1860).

BUNSEN, ROBERT WILLIAM, a distinguished German chemist, born at Goettingen, settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg; invented the charcoal pile, the magnesian light, and the burner called after him; discovered the antidote to arsenic, with hydrate of iron and the SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. v.); _b_. 1811.

BUNSEN BURNER, a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the bottom of it to let in air, which burns with the gas, and causes at the top a non-luminous flame; largely used in chemical operations.

BUNYAN, JOHN, author of the "Pilgrim's Progress," born in Elstow, near Bedford, the son of a tinker, and bred himself to that humble craft; he was early visited with religious convictions, and brought, after a time of resistance to them, to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ, his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment, an imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years, and it was towards the close of it, and in the precincts of Bedford jail, in the spring of 1676, that he dreamed his world-famous dream; here two-thirds of it were written, the whole finished the year after, and published at the end of it; extended, it came out eventually in two parts, but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress, and ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world; encouraged by the success of it--for it leapt into popularity at a bound--Bunyan wrote some sixty other books, but except this, his masterpiece, not more than two of these, "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War," continue to be read (1628-1688).

BUONTALENTI, an Italian artist, born at Florence, one of the greatest, being, like Michael Angelo, at once architect, painter, and sculptor (1536-1608).

BURBAGE, RICHARD, English tragedian, born in London, associate of Shakespeare, took the chief role in "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Richard III.," &c. (1562-1618).

BURCHELL, MR., a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield," noted for his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to believe.

BURCKHARDT, Swiss historian and archaeologist, born at Bale, author of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance"; _b_. 1818.

BURCKHARDT, JOHN LUDVIG, traveller, born at Lausanne, sent out from England by the African Association to explore Africa; travelled by way of Syria; acquired a proficiency in Arabic, and assumed Arabic customs; pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim--the first Christian to risk such a venture; returned to Egypt, and died at Cairo just as he was preparing for his African exploration; his travels were published after his death, and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817).

BURDER, GEORGE, Congregational minister, became secretary to the London Missionary Society, author of "Village Sermons," which were once widely popular (1752-1832).

BURDETT, SIR FRANCIS, a popular member of Parliament, married Sophia, the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts, a wealthy London banker, and acquired through her a large fortune; becoming M.P., he resolutely opposed the government measures of the day, and got himself into serious trouble; advocated radical measures of reform, many of which have since been adopted; was prosecuted for a libel; fined L1000 for condemning the Peterloo massacre, and imprisoned three months; joined the Conservative party in 1835, and died a member of it (1770-1844).

BURDETT-COUTTS, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA, BARONESS, daughter of Sir Francis, inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts, her grandfather, which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well as patriotic objects; was made a peeress in 1871; received the freedom of the city of London in 1874, and in 1881 married Mr. William Lehman Ashmead-Bartlett, an American, who obtained the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts; _b_. 1804.

BUREAU, a name given to a department of public administration, hence bureaucracy, a name for government by bureaux.

BUeRGER, GOTTFRIED AUGUST, a German lyric poet, author of the ballads "Lenore," which was translated by Sir Walter Scott, and "The Wild Huntsman," as well as songs; led a wild life in youth, and a very unhappy one in later years; died in poverty (1747-1794).

BURGKMAIR, HANS, painter and engraver, born at Augsburg; celebrated for his woodcuts, amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531).

BURGOS (34), ancient cap. of Old Castile, on the Arlanzon, 225 m. N. of Madrid by rail; boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period, and an old castle; was the birthplace of the Cid, and once a university seat; it has linen and woollen industries.

BURGOYNE, JOHN, English general, and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies, and, after a victory or two, being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga, fell into disfavour; defended his conduct with ability and successfully afterwards; devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama, the "Heiress" in the latter his best (1723-1792).

BURGOYNE, SIR JOHN, field-marshal, joined the Royal Engineers, served under Abercromby in Egypt, and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain; was present at the battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman in the Crimea; was governor of the Tower (1782-1871).

BURGUNDY was, prior to the 16th century, a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE. and E. of France; annexed to France as a province in the 6th century; the country is still noted for its wines.

BURHANPUR (32), a town in the Central Provinces of India, in the Nimar district, 280 m. NE. of Bombay; was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in the Deccan, and a place of great extent; is now in comparative decay, but still famous, as formerly, for its muslins, silks, and brocades.

BURIDAN, JEAN, a scholastic doctor of the 14th century, born in Artois, and famous as the reputed author, though there is no evidence of it in his works, of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass, called after him Buridan's Ass, between a bottle of hay and a pail of water, a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will.

BURKE, EDMUND, orator and philosophic writer, born at Dublin, and educated at Dublin University; entered Parliament in 1765; distinguished himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side, in particular by his speeches on the American war, Catholic emancipation, and economical reform; his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings; he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution, and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections," a weighty appeal; wrote in early life two small but notable treatises, "A Vindication of Natural Society," and another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful," which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects of the time, and sometime after planned the "Annual Register," to which he was to the last chief contributor. "He was," says Professor Saintsbury, "a rhetorician (i. e. an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose of suasion), and probably the greatest that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797).

BURKE, SIR JOHN BERNARD, genealogist, born in London, of Irish descent, author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom"; produced, besides editing successive editions of it, a number of works on aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892).

BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA, Australian explorer, born in Galway; conducted an expedition across Australia, but on the way back both he and his companion Wells perished, after terrible sufferings from privation and drought (1820-1861).

BURKE, WILLIAM, a notorious murderer, native of Ireland; executed in 1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation, after intoxicating them with drink, whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox, whom the citizens mobbed; he had an accomplice as bad as himself, who, becoming informer, got off.

BURKITT, WILLIAM, Biblical expositor, born in Suffolk; author of "Expository Notes on the New Testament," once held in high esteem (1650-1703).

BURLEIGH, WILLIAM CECIL, LORD, a great statesman, born in Lincolnshire; bred to the legal profession, and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset; managed to escape the Marian persecution; Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities, and appointed him chief-secretary of state, an office which, to the glory of the queen and the good of the country, he held for forty years, till his death. His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without respect of persons, and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598).

BURLINGAME, ANSON, American diplomatist; sent ambassador to China, and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts; concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870).

BURMA (9,606), a vast province of British India, lying E. of the Bay of Bengal, and bounded landward by Bengal, Tibet, China, and Siam; the country is mountainous, drained by the Irawadi, Salween, and Sittang Rivers, whose deltas are flat fertile plains; the heights on the Chinese frontier reach 15,000 ft; the climate varies with the elevation, but is mostly hot and trying; rice is the chief crop; the forests yield teak, gum, and bamboo; the mines, iron, copper, lead, silver, and rubies. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam, cap. Rangoon, and was seized by Britain in 1826 and 1854. Upper Burma, cap. Mandalay, an empire nearly as large as Spain, was annexed in 1886.

BURN, RICHARD, English vicar, born in Westmoreland; compiled several law digests, the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785).

BURNABY, COLONEL, a traveller of daring adventure, born at Bedford, a tall, powerful man; Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue; travelled in South and Central America, and with Gordon in the Soudan; was chiefly distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary, of which he published a spirited account, and for his travels next year in Asia Minor and Persia, and his account of them in "On Horseback through Asia Minor"; killed, pierced by an Arab spear, at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge; he was a daring aeronaut, having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885).

BURNAND, FRANCIS COWLEY, editor of _Punch_; studied for the Church, and became a Roman Catholic; an expert at the burlesque, and author of a series of papers, entitled "Happy Thoughts," which give evidence of a most keen, observant wit: _b_. 1836.

BURNE-JONES, SIR EDWARD, artist, born at Birmingham, of Welsh descent; came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it, which is at once mystical in conception and realistic in execution; he was one of the foremost, if not the foremost, of the artists of his day; imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment; William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford, and used to spend their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898).

BURNES, SIR ALEXANDER, born at Montrose, his father a cousin of Robert Burns; was an officer in the Indian army; distinguished for the services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the native languages; appointed Resident at Cabul; was murdered, along with his brother and others, by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection (1805-1841).

BURNET, GILBERT, bishop of Salisbury, born at Edinburgh, of an old Aberdeen family; professor of Divinity in Glasgow; afterwards preacher at the Rolls Chapel, London; took an active part in supporting the claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne; was rewarded with a bishopric, that of Salisbury; wrote the "History of the Reformation," an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles," the "History of His Own Times"; he was a Whig in politics, a broad Churchman in creed, and a man of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity; the most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times," a work which Pope, Swift, and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715).

BURNET, JOHN, engraver and author, born at Fisherrow; engraved Wilkie's works, and wrote on art (1784-1868).

BURNET, THOMAS, master of the Charterhouse, born in Yorkshire, author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth," eloquent in descriptive parts, but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715).

BURNETT, FRANCES HODGSON, novelist, born in Manchester, resident for a time in America; wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's," and other stories of Lancashire manufacturing life, characterised by shrewd observation, pathos, and descriptive power; _b_. 1849.

BURNEY, CHARLES, musical composer and organist, born at Shrewsbury; a friend of Johnson's; author of "The History of Music," and the father of Madame d'Arblay; settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814).

BURNEY, CHARLES, son of preceding, a great classical scholar; left a fine library, purchased by the British Museum for L13,500 (1757-1817).

BURNEY, JAMES, brother of preceding, rear-admiral, accompanied Cook in his last two voyages; wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821).

BURNLEY (87), a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 27 m. N. of Manchester; with cotton mills, foundries, breweries, &c.

BURNOUF, EUGENE, an illustrious Orientalist, born in Paris; professor of Sanskrit in the College of France; an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature; edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata Purana," a book embodying Hindu mythology; made a special study of Buddhism; wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852).

BURNS, JOHN, politician and Socialist, born at Vauxhall, of humble parentage; bred to be an engineer; imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman, a Frenchman, a refugee of the Commune from Paris; became a platform orator in the interest of Socialism, and popular among the working class; got into trouble in consequence; was four times elected member of the London County Council for Battersea; and has been twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament; _b_. 1858.

BURNS, ROBERT, celebrated Scottish poet, born at Alloway, near Ayr, in 1759, son of an honest, intelligent peasant, who tried farming in a small way, but did not prosper; tried farming himself on his father's decease in 1784, but took to rhyming by preference; driven desperate in his circumstances, meditated emigrating to Jamaica, and published a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end; realised a few pounds thereby, and was about to set sail, when friends and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay; he was invited to Edinburgh; his poems were reprinted, and money came in; soon after he married, and took a farm, but failing, accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries; fell into bad health, and died in 1796, aged 37. "His sun shone as through a tropical tornado, and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon.... To the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more venerable, but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given.... And that spirit, which might have soared could it but have walked, soon sank to the dust, its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom; and died, we may almost say, without ever having lived." See Carlyle's "Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. He is at his best in his "Songs," he says, which he thinks "by far the best that Britain has yet produced.... In them," he adds, "he has found a tune and words for every mood of man's heart; in hut and hall, as the heart unfolds itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence, the _name_, the _voice_ of that joy and that woe, is the name and voice which Burns has given them."

BURRA-BURRA, a copper-mine in S. Australia, about 103 m. NE. of Adelaide.

BURRARD INLET, an inlet of river Fraser, in British Columbia, forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast.

BURRITT, ELIHU, a blacksmith, born in Connecticut; devoted to the study of languages, of which he knew many, both ancient and modern; best known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great part of Europe, on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879).

BURROUGHS, JOHN, popular author, born in New York; a farmer, a cultured man, with a great liking for country life and natural objects, on which he has written largely and _con amore_; _b_. 1837.

BURRUS, a Roman general, who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education, and opposed his tyrannical acts, till Nero, weary of his expostulations, got rid of him by poison.

BURSCHENSCHAFT, an association of students in the interest of German liberation and unity; formed in 1813, and broken up by the Government in 1819.

BURSLEM (31), a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire, and the "mother of the potteries"; manufactures porcelain and glass.

BURTON, JOHN HILL, historian and miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; an able man, bred for the bar; wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals, "Life of Hume," "History of Scotland," "The Book-Hunter," "The Scot Abroad," &c.; characterised by Lord Rosebery as a "dispassionate historian"; was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1809-1881).

BURTON, SIR RICHARD FRANCIS, traveller, born in Hertfordshire; served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. Napier; visited Mecca and Medina as an Afghan pilgrim; wrote an account of his visit in his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage, &c."; penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke, and discovered Lake Tanganyika; visited Utah, and wrote "The City of the Saints"; travelled in Brazil, Palestine, and Western Africa, accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife; translated the "Arabian Nights"; his works on his travels numerous, and show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890).

BURTON, ROBERT, an English clergyman, born in Leicestershire; Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford; lived chiefly in Oxford, spending his time in it for some 50 years in study; author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy," which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind, a book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic, familiar and unfamiliar, from every manner of source (1576-1640). See ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY.

BURTON-ON-TRENT (46), a town in Staffordshire; brews and exports large quantities of ale, the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes.

BURY (56), a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 10 m. NW. of Manchester; originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture, but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works, dye-works, &c.

BURY ST. EDMUNDS, or ST. EDMUNDSBURY (16), a market-town in Suffolk, 26 m. NW. of Ipswich, named from Edmund, king of East Anglia, martyred by the Danes in 870, in whose honour it was built; famous for its abbey, of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT."

BUSA`CO, a mountain ridge in the prov. of Beira, Portugal, where Wellington with 40,000 troops beat Massena with 65,000.

BUSBY, RICHARD, distinguished English schoolmaster, born at Lutton, Lincolnshire; was head-master of Winchester School; had a number of eminent men for his pupils, among others Dryden, Locke, and South (1606-1695).

BUeSCHING, ANTON FRIEDRICH, a celebrated German geographer; his "Erdbeschreibung," the first geographical work of any scientific merit; gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793).

BUSHIRE (27), the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf, and a great trading centre.

BUSHMEN, or BOSJESMANS, aborigines of South-west Africa; a rude, nomadic race, at one time numerous, but now fast becoming extinct.

BUSHRANGERS, in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush," and there associated with other desperadoes; at one time caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings.

BUSIRIS, a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in sacrifice; seized Hercules and bound him to the altar, but Hercules snapped the bonds he was bound with, and sacrificed him.

BUSK, HANS, one of the originators of the Volunteer movement, born in Wales; author of "The Rifle, and How to Use it" (1815-1882).

BUSKIN, a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage, and a synonym for tragedy.

BUTE, an island in the Firth of Clyde, about 16 m. long and from 3 to 5 broad, N. of Arran, nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property, with his seat at Mount Stuart, and separated from the mainland on the N. by a winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute."

BUTE, JOHN STUART, THIRD EARL OF, statesman, born of an old Scotch family; Secretary of State, and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime Minister under George III., over whom he had a great influence; was very unpopular as a statesman, his leading idea being the supremacy of the king; spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement, devoting himself to literature and science (1712-1792).

BUTE, MARQUIS OF, son of the second marquis, born in Bute; admitted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1868; devoted to archaeological studies, and interested in university education; _b_. 1849.

BUTLER, ALBAN, hagiographer, born in Northampton; head of the college at St. Omer; wrote "Lives of the Saints" (1710-1773).

BUTLER, CHARLES, an English barrister, born in London; wrote "Historical Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832).

BUTLER, JOSEPH, an eminent English divine, born at Wantage, in Berks; born a Dissenter; conformed to the Church of England; became preacher at the Rolls, where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons," the first three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral science; was raised, in virtue of his merits alone, to the see of Bristol; made dean of St. Paul's, and finally bishop of Durham; his great work, "The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature," the aim of which is twofold--first, to show that the objections to revealed religion are equally valid against the constitution of nature; and second, to establish a conformity between the divine order in revelation and the order of nature; his style is far from interesting, and is often obscure (1692-1752).

BUTLER, SAMUEL, a master of burlesque, born at Strensham, in Worcestershire, the son of a small farmer; the author of "Hudibras," a poem of about 10,000 octosyllabic lines, in which he subjects to ridicule the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the Civil War and the Commonwealth; it appeared in three parts, the first in 1663, the second soon after, and the third in 1678; it is sparkling with wit, yet is hard reading, and few who take it up read it through; was an especial favourite with Charles II., who was never weary of quoting from it. "It represents," says Stopford Brooke, "the fierce reaction that (at the Restoration) had set in against Puritanism. It is justly famed," he adds, "for wit, learning, good sense, and ingenious drollery, and, in accordance with the new criticism, is absolutely without obscurity. It is often as terse as Pope's best work; but it is too long; its wit wearies us at last, and it undoes the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its exaggeration" (1612-1680).

BUTLER, WILLIAM ARCHER, a philosophical writer, born near Clonmel, Ireland; professor of Moral Philosophy at Dublin; author of "Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848).

BUTT, CLARA, operatic singer, born in Sussex; made her _debut_ in London at the Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend," and in "Orfeo" at the Lyceum, ever since which appearances she has been much in demand as a singer; _b_. 1872.

BUTT, ISAAC, Irish patriot, distinguished for his scholarship at Dublin University; became editor of the _Dublin University Magazine_; entered Parliament, and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party, but could not control it, and retired (1813-1879).

BUTTMANN, PHILIPP, a German philologist, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main; professor of Philology in Berlin; best known by his "Greek Grammar" (1764-1829).

BUXTON, a high-lying town in Derbyshire, noted for its calcareous and chalybeate springs, and a resort for invalids; is also famous for its rock crystals, stalactite cavern, and fine scenery.

BUXTON, SIR THOMAS FOWELL, a philanthropist, born in Essex, a tall man of energetic character; entered life as a brewer, and made his fortune; was conspicuous for his interest in benevolent movements, such as the amelioration of criminal law and the abolition of slavery; represented Weymouth in Parliament from 1818 to 1837; was made a baronet in 1840; he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845).

BUXTON, SIR THOMAS FOWELL, once governor of S. Australia, grandson of the preceding; educated at Harrow and Cambridge; a Liberal in politics, and member for King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868; a philanthropist and Evangelical Churchman; _b_. 1837.

BUXTORF, a celebrated Hebraist, born in Westphalia, member of a family of Orientalists; professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle; was known by the title, "Master of the Rabbis" (1564-1629).

BYBLIS, in the Greek mythology a daughter of Miletus, in love with her brother Caunus, whom she pursued into far lands, till, worn out with sorrow, she was changed into a fountain.

BYNG, GEORGE, VISCOUNT TORRINGTON, admiral, favoured the Prince of Orange, and won the navy over to his interest; commanded the squadron that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape Passaro; was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727, an office he held till his death (1663-1733).

BYNG, JOHN, admiral, fourth son of the preceding; having failed to compel the French to raise the blockade of Minorca, was recalled, in deference to popular clamour, and being tried and condemned as guilty of treason, was shot at Portsmouth, a fate it is now believed he did not deserve, and which he bore like a man and a Christian (1704-1757).

BYROM, JOHN, poet and stenographer, born near Manchester; invented a system of shorthand, now superseded, and which he had the sole right of teaching for 21 years; contributed as "John Shadow" to the _Spectator_; author of the pastoral, "My Time, O ye Muses, was Happily Spent"; his poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763).

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, SIXTH LORD, an English poet, born in London, son of Captain Byron of the Guards, and Catherine Gordon of Gight, Aberdeenshire; spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother, now a widow, and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, spending, when at the latter, his vacations in London, where his mother had taken a house; wrote "Hours of Idleness," a poor first attempt, which called forth a severe criticism in the _Edinburgh Review_, and which he satirised in "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," and soon afterwards left England and spent two years in foreign travel; wrote first part of "Childe Harold," "awoke one morning and found himself famous"; produced the "Giaour," "Bride of Abydos," "Hebrew Melodies," and other work. In his school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth, but she had not returned his affection, and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank, an heiress, who in a year left him never to return, when a storm raised against him on account of his private life drove him from England, and he never came back; on the Continent, moved from place to place, finished "Childe Harold," completed several short poems, and wrote "Don Juan"; threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece, risked his all in the emancipation of the latter, and embarking in it, died at Missolonghi in a fit, at the age of 36. His poems, from the character of the passion that breathed in them, made a great impression on his age, but the like interest in them is happily now passing away, if not already past; the earth is looking green again once more, under the breath, it is believed, of a new spring-time, or anyhow, the promise of such. See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824).

BYRON, HENRY JAMES, dramatist, born in Manchester, wrote "Our Boys" (1834-1884).

BYRON, JOHN, naval officer, grandfather of the poet, nicknamed from his misfortunes "Foul-weather Jack"; accompanied Anson in his voyage round the world, but was wrecked in his ship the _Wager_; suffered almost unexampled hardships, of which he wrote a classical account on his safe return home; he rose to the rank of admiral, and commanded the squadron in the West Indies during the American war; died in England (1723-1786).

BYRSA, a celebrated citadel of Carthage.

BYZANTINE ART, a decorative style of art patronised by the Romans after the seat of empire was removed to the East; it has been described by Mr. Fairholt as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon classic forms, ending in their debasement."

BYZANTINE EMPIRE, called also the Eastern, the Lower, or the Greek Empire; dates from 395 A.D., when, by the death of Theodosius, the Roman empire was divided between his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, the Eastern section falling to the share of the former, who established the seat of his government at Byzantium; the empire included Syria, Asia Minor, Pontus, Egypt in Africa, and Ancient Greece, and it lasted with varied fortune for ten centuries after the accession of Arcadius, till Constantinople was taken by the Turks in 1453.

BYZANTIUM, the ancient name of Constantinople; founded by Greek colonists in 667 B.C.

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